Co-localization of CD105 (TRITC) and p-IRS-1 was seen in microvessels of citicoline-treated animals in stroke regions following MCAO. Ai and ii) IHC staining of citicoline-treated rats (n = 5) demonstrated a notable increase in the staining of stroke-associated microvessels with p-IRS-1 (DAB; brown). Representative staining is shown from one animal at magnifications of x 40 and x 100. Arrows represent positively stained vessels. B) IF analysis demonstrated co-localization of CD105 (TRITC) and p-IRS-1 (FITC) in some of these vessels. In all experiments, control sections were used where the primary antibody was replaced by PBS.