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Table 1 Signaling pathways/factors that regulate Notch ligand expression in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells

From: Novel insights into the differential functions of Notch ligands in vascular formation

Pathway/factor Ligand Cell type Biological effect References
VEGF Dll4 (↑) Endothelial cells Arterial specification [22, 24, 27]
   Endothelial tip cell formation in sprouting angiogenesis   [23, 25, 26, 28]
TNFα Dll4 (↓) Jagged1 (↑) Endothelial cells Tip cell and stalk cell selection [52]
VEGF + FGF2
(synergistic)
Dll1 (↑) Endothelial cells Ischemia-induced postnatal arteriogenesis [38]
PDGF/angiotensin II Jagged1 (↓) Smooth muscle cells Growth regulation [45]
Jagged1 (endothelial) Jagged1 (↑) Mural cells Smooth muscle cell maturation [21]
  1. ↑, Upregulation; ↓, Downregulation.
  2. VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; FGF, Fibroblast growth factor; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor