Application of microtechnologies for the vascularization of engineered tissues
© Gauvin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 5 July 2011
Accepted: 31 October 2011
Published: 31 October 2011
Recent advances in medicine and healthcare allow people to live longer, increasing the need for the number of organ transplants. However, the number of organ donors has not been able to meet the demand, resulting in an organ shortage. The field of tissue engineering has emerged to produce organs to overcome this limitation. While tissue engineering of connective tissues such as skin and blood vessels have currently reached clinical studies, more complex organs are still far away from commercial availability due to pending challenges with in vitro engineering of 3D tissues. One of the major limitations of engineering large tissue structures is cell death resulting from the inability of nutrients to diffuse across large distances inside a scaffold. This task, carried out by the vasculature inside the body, has largely been described as one of the foremost important challenges in engineering 3D tissues since it remains one of the key steps for both in vitro production of tissue engineered construct and the in vivo integration of a transplanted tissue. This short review highlights the important challenges for vascularization and control of the microcirculatory system within engineered tissues, with particular emphasis on the use of microfabrication approaches.
Keywordsmicrofabrication biomimetic approaches modular assembly
Progress in the development of large tissue-engineered organs has so far been limited by the inability to generate sophisticated three dimensional (3D) structures comprised of a functional vasculature. The vascular system is a dynamic environment comprised of a variety of cell types that constantly remodels itself under the influence of endothelial, immune, nervous and endocrine cells . Vascular growth and remodeling are coupled with developmental and wound healing processes as well as the progression of various pathologies such as inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Most of these processes depend on endothelial cells, which line the interior of blood vessels and form the endothelium. This interface between circulating blood and the surrounding tissues is responsible for proper solute transport and molecular exchange. It ensures the delivery of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to cells to maintain tissue homeostasis. Cells in vivo are found to be at most a few hundred microns away from the nearest capillary or blood vessel. Beyond this distance, diffusion is not effective and tends to reduce cell survival and function. Therefore, the inability to adequately vascularize engineered tissues results in inefficient transport of nutrients and metabolites and often leads to cell death and tissue necrosis. Moreover, vascularization of engineered tissues plays an important role in graft perfusion and is also crucial in facilitating the integration of the implanted material with the host vasculature [2, 3].
Microvascularization of Engineered Tissues through Angiogenesis and Inosculation
The need for adequate solute transport in cell-seeded scaffolds is essential for tissue survival and function. A key approach in attempting to induce the growth of a vascular network within 3D engineered tissue has been the incorporation of growth factors into the scaffolding material. It was shown that a macroporous scaffold, obtained by particle leaching, freeze drying or other pore forming technologies and functionalized with growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), can trigger the formation of vascular structures following in vivo implantation [18–22].
Both natural and synthetic scaffolding materials have been loaded with these pro-angiogenic molecules, leading to the sprouting of capillary beds within the constructs. However, the lack of directed growth of blood vessels to enable interconnectivity between the capillary networks still remains the biggest challenge of this technology.
Microvascular structures incorporated in tissue engineering scaffolds prior to their implantation can also be obtained by the co-culture of endothelial cells with the cell types of interest regarding tissue function. This cell-based approach uses the ability of endothelial cells to release growth factors and promotes the formation of capillaries in vitro. The resulting angiogenesis phenomenon can be explained by the remodeling that occurs within the construct, which is driven by the endothelial network that activates the release of pro-angiogenic factors in the construct. The remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) allowing the formation of vasculature is driven by matrix-metalloproteases (MMPs), regulating cell proliferation and migration within the tissue . Using a skin model, it has been originally demonstrated that a capillary network can be successfully produced by culturing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) into the dermal part of the engineered substitute leading to the formation of long-lasting and perfused blood vessel networks following in vivo transplantation [3, 16, 23–25]. This inosculation enabled the perfusion of the tissue engineered capillary network by the vasculature of the host following implantation. The cell-based approaches have led to many interesting results including vascularized muscle , cardiac tissue , bone  and blood vessel , all of which have been implanted in animal models and have shown improved perfusion and inosculation with the host vasculature. Similar results were obtained when HUVECs were cultured in a 3D collagen ECM in vivo, where a stable tree-like structure of a branched network was observed for an extended period of time . Several other recent studies also suggested that mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial cells have the ability to interact together to form a stable vascular network of capillaries both under in vitro and in vivo conditions [31, 32].
In vivo studies also demonstrated that the presence of vascular structures formed in vitro greatly accelerated inosculation of the implanted tissue with the host vasculature. Results from L'Heureux et al. have shown that the formation of a vasa vasorum in the wall of a tissue engineered blood vessel (TEBV) occurred 3 months following implantation in vivo .
Similarly, Guillemette et al. showed that a TEBV comprised of a vasa vasorum engineered in vitro (TEBVwVV) allowed for complete tissue integration and functional vasa vasorum activity after only 2 weeks in vivo . These studies have provided evidence for the need to incorporate a capillary network into engineered tissues prior to implantation, showing improved and accelerated tissue integration and capillary-like structure formation which enabled connections with the host vasculature in vivo. Therefore, rapid formation of a vascular network between the engineered tissue and the host at the transplanted site, similar to the process observed during wound healing, represents a promising solution to provide implanted cells with adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients. However, this strategy does not provide a sustainable solution that can enable both perfusion in vitro and inosculation in vivo. In addition, these approaches did not result in the creation of organ scale constructs in vitro. In an attempt to engineer vasculature into engineered tissues and organs, microscale technologies and microfluidics systems have emerged as efficient tools to create easily perfusable channels in biocompatible and biodegradable 3D scaffolding materials.
The use of Microtechnologies to Engineer Vascularization in vitro
The application of microtechnologies to biomaterials can be used to reproduce the capillary network and allow the flow of culture medium through a construct during in vitro studies. Unlike angiogenesis and inosculation approaches, microfabricated devices with integrated microvasculature can be optimized to provide a uniform distribution of flow and mass transfer across the scaffolding material and thus provide the cells with an adequate supply of nutrients.
Soft lithographic and micromolding processes have been used to create microfluidic devices consisting of branched networks that can be connected to perfusion systems in vitro . These technologies have been applied to polymers such as poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), poly-lactic (co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polyglycerol sebacate (PGS) in which channel networks can be perfused and seeded with vascular cells [34–37]. These techniques have been shown to be useful to regulate the formation of vascular networks in a precise and efficient manner. The design of functional microvascular networks involves the integration of multiple parameters such as the geometry of branching and bifurcations, fluid mechanics, mass transport and structural rigidity.
These properties are of utmost importance since they greatly influence the stability, oxygen and nutrient distribution and therefore the functionality of engineered tissues. Microfluidic systems can effectively transport solutes in capillary channels ranging from a few millimeters down to micrometers . The control of fluid mechanics and mass transport over this wide range of dimensions has been used to study bioactive molecules and therapeutics in cardiovascular research and tissue engineering . Sophisticated devices have recently been fabricated to reproduce a lung assist apparatus allowing the blood being perfused within the microchannels to be oxygenated by flowing through many parallel capillary-like channels analogous to the native lung architecture . Although optimization of the gas transfer membrane and characterization of the blood flow in the device are still needed, this is a good example demonstrating the potential of microfabrication technologies to generate vascularized platforms for tissue engineering. Similarly, it was shown that microvascular cells could be seeded in the device to form a confluent endothelium on the walls of the vascular channels . These studies demonstrated that microfabricated devices comprised of a fluidic network modeled on human vasculature can be successfully inosculated in vivo .
Even though previous work has shown that microscale channels can be engineered in vitro, there is actually no available method to consecutively branch multi-dimensional channels inside a scaffold . Top-down fabrication processes are inherently planar in nature and therefore 3D structures mostly result from stacked 2D structures which are comprised of channels having rectangular cross sections . Moreover, most microfabrication techniques have been developed for materials that are unable to sustain cell encapsulation, which represents a limitation of this approach to generate large vascularized tissues [36, 44, 45]. Few attempts were made to engineer perfused microfluidic devices in which two different cell types can be cultured [36, 46], but a vascularized tissue with parenchymal cells has yet to be created and there are still no methods to build sustainable large cell-laden structures with multi-dimensional branched networks. Other microscale fabrication approaches such as bioprinting and stereolithography are currently being investigated to create 3D branching vascular networks [47–50]. However, these methods not only require specialized facilities and expensive equipment, but the fabrication processes involved are usually time consuming.
Biomimetic Approaches for Engineering Tissue Vascularization
Cells in the body are in contact with a complex 3D environment comprised of a combination of soluble factors as well as the ECM and basement membrane proteins found in the tissue in which they reside. Most tissues consist of multiple cell types organized into hierarchical structures that allow them to regulate their function. Modular tissue engineering, or bottom-up approaches, have recently emerged as powerful fabrication methods to generate 3D structures that mimic this organization and that recapitulate tissue structure and spatial resolution [51–54]. These techniques aim to generate biomimetic mesoscale structures by engineering microscale components and by using them as building blocks to fabricate larger tissue structures . This approach has been used to control the cell microenvironment and the macroscale properties of relatively large and complex engineered tissues [56, 57].
Microgels are microscale hydrogels fabricated by merging microscale fabrication and hydrogel chemistry. They exhibit properties similar to native ECM, can sustain cell encapsulation and have tunable geometrical, mechanical and biological properties which make them excellent candidates for tissue engineering applications. Based on these characteristics, cell-laden microgels were fabricated and then assembled into 3D tissue constructs to create precise
One of the challenges of directed self-assembly technology resides in the difficulty to scale-up the tissue produced. Larger structures have recently been built using lock-and-key principles and modular assembly . Ongoing work is currently focusing on long-term perfusion aiming at developing mature and functional vasculature in vitro. Maintaining physiological functionality and blood flow in a high-density vascular network with optimized oxygen transfer conditions is critical to keep the tissue in an appropriate state of homeostasis. This biomimetic approach can also be utilized in the design of organ-on-a-chip technologies aiming at the fabrication of precise and reliable small scale models that can later be used for drug screening and physiological in vitro studies .
One of the major limiting factors in the field of tissue engineering is the difficulty to generate functional 3D tissues due to the inability to integrate vascular structures into scaffolds. Building networks of vessels branched together into a complex interconnected structure connecting across multiple length scales remain one of the greatest challenges in tissue engineering. Most cells in the human body are within a few hundred microns from a capillary, allowing the delivery of adequate nutrients and supplies to the tissues and organs. Since most tissue engineering scaffolds are unable to provide such proximity for continuous solutes and oxygen flow, the engineering of large tissues severely lacks from diffusion and transport properties. The methods currently investigated to generate vasculature in scaffolds mainly involve the use of proangiogenic growth factors and cell-based approaches, which have shown promising results in vivo, but still cannot provide inlet and outlet vessels for in vitro perfusion. Despite all the advances in microfluidics, the use of microengineered 3D structures comprised of rationally designed and microfabricated channels offer limited functionality. These platforms do not provide a parenchymal space for cell types other than endothelial cells to grow within the constructs and present an integration problem with the host tissue. Modular and bottom-up approaches have recently emerged as promising biofabrication approaches in which functional microscale tissue building blocks can be assembled into 3D macroscale tissue constructs. These are relatively simple methods that allow the production of perfusable tissue, with precise control over the microscale features in a 3D construct. They are particularly promising in the case of organ engineering, where tissue requires perfusion and needs to perform a specialized physiological function. The precise design of microscale components in a high-throughput fashion combined with the capability to link these components together to generate larger structures represents a promising way to build vascularized 3D structures. Therefore, combining modular assembly methods with microfabrication technologies to engineer tissues and organs represent an effective method to control tissue architecture both at the micro and macroscale. This will be a major step forward in the field of tissue engineering that will not only result in the production of functional engineered tissues, but will also greatly help the translation of the technology from in vitro studies to in vivo applications.
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (EB008392; HL092836; HL099073; EB009196; DE019024), National Science Foundation (DMR0847287), the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology, the Office of Naval Research, and the US Army Corps of Engineers. RG holds a postdoctoral fellowship from FQRNT and a scientific fellowship from DRDC-NSERC.
- Mikos AG, Herring SW, Ochareon P, Elisseeff J, Lu HH, Kandel R, Schoen FJ, Toner M, Mooney D, Atala A, Van Dyke ME, Kaplan D, Vunjak-Novakovic G: Engineering complex tissues. Tissue Eng. 2006, 12: 3307-3339. 10.1089/ten.2006.12.3307.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jain RK, Au P, Tam J, Duda DG, Fukumura D: Engineering vascularized tissue. Nat Biotechnol. 2005, 23: 821-823. 10.1038/nbt0705-821.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guillemette MD, Gauvin R, Perron C, Labbe R, Germain L, Auger FA: Tissue engineered vascular adventitia with vasa vasorum improves graft integration and vascularization through inosculation. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010, 16: 2617-2626. 10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0612.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Freed LE, Engelmayr GC, Borenstein JT, Moutos FT, Guilak F: Advanced material strategies for tissue engineering scaffolds. Adv Mater. 2009, 21: 3410-3418. 10.1002/adma.200900303.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yannas IV, Burke JF, Orgill DP, Skrabut EM: Wound tissue can utilize a polymeric template to synthesize a functional extension of skin. Science. 1982, 215: 174-176. 10.1126/science.7031899.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bell E, Ehrlich HP, Buttle DJ, Nakatsuji T: Living tissue formed in vitro and accepted as skin-equivalent tissue of full thickness. Science. 1981, 211: 1052-1054. 10.1126/science.7008197.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Atala A, Bauer SB, Soker S, Yoo JJ, Retik AB: Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing cystoplasty. Lancet. 2006, 367: 1241-1246. 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68438-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carrier P, Deschambeault A, Audet C, Talbot M, Gauvin R, Giasson CJ, Auger FA, Guerin SL, Germain L: Impact of cell source on human cornea reconstructed by tissue engineering. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009, 50: 2645-2652. 10.1167/iovs.08-2001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vrana NE, Builles N, Justin V, Bednarz J, Pellegrini G, Ferrari B, Damour O, Hulmes DJ, Hasirci V: Development of a reconstructed cornea from collagen-chondroitin sulfate foams and human cell cultures. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008, 49: 5325-5331. 10.1167/iovs.07-1599.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- L'Heureux N, Paquet S, Labbe R, Germain L, Auger F: A completely biological tissue engineered human blood vessel. FASEB Journal. 1998, 12: 47-56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- L'Heureux N, McAllister TN, de la Fuente LM: Tissue-engineered blood vessel for adult arterial revascularization. N Engl J Med. 2007, 357: 1451-1453. 10.1056/NEJMc071536.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Magnan M, Levesque P, Gauvin R, Dube J, Barrieras D, El-Hakim A, Bolduc S: Tissue Engineering of a Genitourinary Tubular Tissue Graft Resistant to Suturing and High Internal Pressures. Tissue Eng. 2008, 15: 197-202.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Griffith LG, Naughton G: Tissue engineering--current challenges and expanding opportunities. Science. 2002, 295: 1009-1014. 10.1126/science.1069210.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ehrbar M, Djonov VG, Schnell C, Tschanz SA, Martiny-Baron G, Schenk U, Wood J, Burri PH, Hubbell JA, Zisch AH: Cell-demanded liberation of VEGF121 from fibrin implants induces local and controlled blood vessel growth. Circ Res. 2004, 94: 1124-1132. 10.1161/01.RES.0000126411.29641.08.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peters MC, Polverini PJ, Mooney DJ: Engineering vascular networks in porous polymer matrices. J Biomed Mater Res. 2002, 60: 668-678. 10.1002/jbm.10134.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Black AF, Berthod F, L'Heureux N, Germain L, Auger FA: In vitro reconstruction of a human capillary-like network in a tissue-engineered skin equivalent. Faseb J. 1998, 12: 1331-1340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borenstein JT, Terai H, King KR, Weinberg EJ, Kaazempur-Mofrad MR, Vacanti JP: Microfabrication Technology for Vascularized Tissue Engineering. Biomedical Microdevices. 2002, 4: 167-175. 10.1023/A:1016040212127.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Richardson TP, Peters MC, Ennett AB, Mooney DJ: Polymeric system for dual growth factor delivery. Nat Biotechnol. 2001, 19: 1029-1034. 10.1038/nbt1101-1029.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zisch AH, Lutolf MP, Ehrbar M, Raeber GP, Rizzi SC, Davies N, Schmokel H, Bezuidenhout D, Djonov V, Zilla P, Hubbell JA: Cell-demanded release of VEGF from synthetic, biointeractive cell ingrowth matrices for vascularized tissue growth. Faseb J. 2003, 17: 2260-2262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zisch AH, Lutolf MP, Hubbell JA: Biopolymeric delivery matrices for angiogenic growth factors. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2003, 12: 295-310. 10.1016/S1054-8807(03)00089-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Perets A, Baruch Y, Weisbuch F, Shoshany G, Neufeld G, Cohen S: Enhancing the vascularization of three-dimensional porous alginate scaffolds by incorporating controlled release basic fibroblast growth factor microspheres. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2003, 65: 489-497.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lin H, Chen B, Sun W, Zhao W, Zhao Y, Dai J: The effect of collagen-targeting platelet-derived growth factor on cellularization and vascularization of collagen scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2006, 27: 5708-5714. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.07.023.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rochon MH, Fradette J, Fortin V, Tomasetig F, Roberge CJ, Baker K, Berthod F, Auger FA, Germain L: Normal Human Epithelial Cells Regulate the Size and Morphology of Tissue-Engineered Capillaries. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010, 16: 1457-68. 10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0090.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hudon V, Berthod F, Black AF, Damour O, Germain L, Auger FA: A tissue-engineered endothelialized dermis to study the modulation of angiogenic and angiostatic molecules on capillary-like tube formation in vitro. Br J Dermatol. 2003, 148: 1094-1104. 10.1046/j.1365-2133.2003.05298.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tremblay PL, Hudon V, Berthod F, Germain L, Auger FA: Inosculation of tissue engineered capillaries with the host's vasculature in a reconstructed skin transplanted on mice. Am J Transplant. 2005, 5: 1002-1010. 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2005.00790.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Levenberg S, Rouwkema J, Macdonald M, Garfein ES, Kohane DS, Darland DC, Marini R, van Blitterswijk CA, Mulligan RC, D'Amore PA, Langer R: Engineering vascularized skeletal muscle tissue. Nat Biotechnol. 2005, 23: 879-884. 10.1038/nbt1109.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lesman A, Habib M, Caspi O, Gepstein A, Arbel G, Levenberg S, Gepstein L: Transplantation of a tissue-engineered human vascularized cardiac muscle. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010, 16: 115-125.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsigkou O, Pomerantseva I, Spencer JA, Redondo PA, Hart AR, O'Doherty E, Lin Y, Friedrich CC, Daheron L, Lin CP, Sundback CA, Vacanti JP, Neville C: Engineered vascularized bone grafts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010, 107: 3311-3316. 10.1073/pnas.0905445107.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guillemette MD, Gauvin R, Perron C, Labbe R, Germain L, Auger FA: Tissue-Engineered Vascular Adventitia with Vasa Vasorum Improves Graft Integration and Vascularization Through Inosculation. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010, 16: 2617-26. 10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0612.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Koike N, Fukumura D, Gralla O, Au P, Schechner JS, Jain RK: Tissue engineering: creation of long-lasting blood vessels. Nature. 2004, 428: 138-139. 10.1038/428138a.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sorrell JM, Baber MA, Caplan AI: Influence of adult mesenchymal stem cells on in vitro vascular formation. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009, 15: 1751-1761. 10.1089/ten.tea.2008.0254.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ford MC, Bertram JP, Hynes SR, Michaud M, Li Q, Young M, Segal SS, Madri JA, Lavik EB: A macroporous hydrogel for the coculture of neural progenitor and endothelial cells to form functional vascular networks in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006, 103: 2512-2517. 10.1073/pnas.0506020102.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- L'Heureux N, Dusserre N, Konig G, Victor B, Keire P, Wight TN, Chronos NA, Kyles AE, Gregory CR, Hoyt G, Robbins RC, McAllister TN: Human tissue-engineered blood vessels for adult arterial revascularization. Nat Med. 2006, 12: 361-365. 10.1038/nm1364.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- King KR, Wang CJ, Kaazempur-Mofrad MR, Vacanti JP, Borenstein JT: Biodegradable microfluidics. Advanced Materials. 2004, 16: 2007-2012. 10.1002/adma.200306522.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fidkowski C, Kaazempur-Mofrad MR, Borenstein J, Vacanti JP, Langer R, Wang Y: Endothelialized microvasculature based on a biodegradable elastomer. Tissue Engineering. 2005, 11: 302-309. 10.1089/ten.2005.11.302.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Golden AP, Tien J: Fabrication of microfluidic hydrogels using molded gelatin as a sacrificial element. Lab Chip. 2007, 7: 720-725. 10.1039/b618409j.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choi NW, Cabodi M, Held B, Gleghorn JP, Bonassar LJ, Stroock AD: Microfluidic scaffolds for tissue engineering. Nat Mater. 2007, 6: 908-915. 10.1038/nmat2022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Whitesides GM: The origins and the future of microfluidics. Nature. 2006, 442: 368-373. 10.1038/nature05058.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khademhosseini A, Langer R, Borenstein J, Vacanti JP: Microscale technologies for tissue engineering and biology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006, 103: 2480-2487. 10.1073/pnas.0507681102.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoganson DM, Anderson JL, Weinberg EF, Swart EJ, Orrick BK, Borenstein JT, Vacanti JP: Branched vascular network architecture: a new approach to lung assist device technology. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010, 140: 990-995. 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.02.062.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hsu WM, Carraro A, Kulig KM, Miller ML, Kaazempur-Mofrad M, Weinberg E, Entabi F, Albadawi H, Watkins MT, Borenstein JT, Vacanti JP, Neville C: Liver-assist device with a microfluidics-based vascular bed in an animal model. Ann Surg. 2010, 252: 351-357. 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181e982ba.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chrobak KM, Potter DR, Tien J: Formation of perfused, functional microvascular tubes in vitro. Microvasc Res. 2006, 71: 185-196. 10.1016/j.mvr.2006.02.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borenstein JT, Tupper MM, Mack PJ, Weinberg EJ, Khalil AS, Hsiao J, Garcia-Cardena G: Functional endothelialized microvascular networks with circular cross-sections in a tissue culture substrate. Biomed Microdevices. 2010, 12: 71-79. 10.1007/s10544-009-9361-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bettinger CJ, Weinberg EJ, Kulig KM, Vacanti JP, Wang Y, Borenstein JT, Langer R: Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Tissue-Engineering Scaffolds Using a Flexible Biodegradable Polymer. Advanced Materials. 2006, 18: 165-169. 10.1002/adma.200500438.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bettinger CJ, Cyr KM, Matsumoto A, Langer R, Borenstein JT, Kaplan DL: Silk Fibroin Microfluidic Devices. Adv Mater. 2007, 19: 2847-2850. 10.1002/adma.200602487.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carraro A, Hsu WM, Kulig KM, Cheung WS, Miller ML, Weinberg EJ, Swart EF, Kaazempur-Mofrad M, Borenstein JT, Vacanti JP, Neville C: In vitro analysis of a hepatic device with intrinsic microvascular-based channels. Biomedical Microdevices. 2008, 10: 795-805. 10.1007/s10544-008-9194-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Visconti RP, Kasyanov V, Gentile C, Zhang J, Markwald RR, Mironov V: Towards organ printing: engineering an intra-organ branched vascular tree. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2010, 10: 409-420. 10.1517/14712590903563352.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang J-H, Kim J, Agrawal N, Sudarsan AP, Maxim JE, Jayaraman A, Ugaz VM: Rapid Fabrication of Bio-inspired 3D Microfluidic Vascular Networks. Advanced Materials. 2009, 21: 3567-3571. 10.1002/adma.200900584.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guillotin B, Souquet A, Catros S, Duocastella M, Pippenger B, Bellance S, Bareille R, Remy M, Bordenave L, Amedee J, Guillemot F: Laser assisted bioprinting of engineered tissue with high cell density and microscale organization. Biomaterials. 2010, 31: 7250-7256. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.05.055.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu Y, Mapili G, Suhali G, Chen S, Roy K: A digital micro-mirror device-based system for the microfabrication of complex, spatially patterned tissue engineering scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006, 77: 396-405.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nichol JW, Khademhosseini A: Modular Tissue Engineering: Engineering Biological Tissues from the Bottom Up. Soft Matter. 2009, 5: 1312-1319. 10.1039/b814285h.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGuigan AP, Leung B, Sefton MV: Fabrication of cell-containing gel modules to assemble modular tissue-engineered constructs. Nat Protoc. 2006, 1: 2963-2969.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGuigan AP, Sefton MV: Design and fabrication of sub-mm-sized modules containing encapsulated cells for modular tissue engineering. Tissue Eng. 2007, 13: 1069-1078. 10.1089/ten.2006.0253.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Du Y, Lo E, Ali S, Khademhosseini A: Directed assembly of cell-laden microgels for fabrication of 3D tissue constructs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008, 105: 9522-9527. 10.1073/pnas.0801866105.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khademhosseini A, Langer R: Microengineered hydrogels for tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2007, 28: 5087-5092. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.07.021.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fernandez JG, Khademhosseini A: Micro-masonry: construction of 3D structures by microscale self-assembly. Adv Mater. 2010, 22: 2538-2541. 10.1002/adma.200903893.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Du Y, Ghodousi M, Lo E, Vidula MK, Emiroglu O, Khademhosseini A: Surfacedirected assembly of cell-laden microgels. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010, 105: 655-662. 10.1002/bit.22552.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yeh J, Ling Y, Karp JM, Gantz J, Chandawarkar A, Eng G, Blumling J, Langer R, Khademhosseini A: Micromolding of shape-controlled, harvestable cell-laden hydrogels. Biomaterials. 2006, 27: 5391-5398. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.06.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chung SE, Park W, Shin S, Lee SA, Kwon S: Guided and fluidic self-assembly of microstructures using railed microfluidic channels. Nat Mater. 2008, 7: 581-587. 10.1038/nmat2208.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGuigan AP, Sefton MV: Vascularized organoid engineered by modular assembly enables blood perfusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006, 103: 11461-11466. 10.1073/pnas.0602740103.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Du Y, Ghodousi M, Qi H, Haas N, Xiao W, Khademhosseini A: Sequential assembly of cell-laden hydrogel constructs to engineer vascular-like microchannels. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2011, 108: 1693-703. 10.1002/bit.23102.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Qi H, Du Y, Wang L, Kaji H, Bae H, Khademhosseini A: Patterned differentiation of individual embryoid bodies in spatially organized 3D hybrid microgels. Adv Mater. 2010, 22: 5276-5281. 10.1002/adma.201002873.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.